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塔式起重機安全事故的經驗教訓
   隨著近年來建筑行業塔式起重機的大量使用,各類塔式起重機安全事故也伴隨其數量的增多而大量涌現。針對各類事故的成因,有關管理部門也相應出臺了若干管理措施,從起重機的設計、制造、安裝、使用、檢驗、維修保養和改造等環節進行監管,如對塔式起重機制造單位進行生產許可、對安裝單位進行資質管理、起重機安裝使用前的驗收登記、使用過程中監督部門的監督抽查等,在一定程度上減少了塔式起重機安全事故的發生。但由于工地中塔式起重機使用單位的專業技術水平有限、安全意識薄弱等原因.使得在塔式起重機的使用環節上存在有比較大的安全漏洞。

  在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)某(mou)工地就(jiu)發(fa)生了這樣(yang)一起(qi)(qi)塔式起(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)安全(quan)(quan)事(shi)故(gu)(gu)(gu)(gu)。事(shi)故(gu)(gu)(gu)(gu)發(fa)生時起(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)吊鉤(gou)(gou)正在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)起(qi)(qi)吊物料(liao)。在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)上(shang)升(sheng)到4m左右高度時吊鉤(gou)(gou)突(tu)然下滑。司機(ji)反應(ying)不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)及(ji)。導致所吊物料(liao)及(ji)吊鉤(gou)(gou)直(zhi)接(jie)(jie)墜落地面的(de)(de)(de)(de)事(shi)故(gu)(gu)(gu)(gu)。有關(guan)(guan)部門(men)對(dui)(dui)事(shi)故(gu)(gu)(gu)(gu)原(yuan)因(yin)進行查(cha)驗(yan),發(fa)現所吊物料(liao)重(zhong)(zhong)量并未超過(guo)(guo)(guo)起(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)額定(ding)起(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)量。提升(sheng)鋼絲繩及(ji)其(qi)接(jie)(jie)頭(tou)也無松脫或(huo)斷裂現象,因(yin)此(ci)(ci)可(ke)初(chu)步排除超載的(de)(de)(de)(de)原(yuan)因(yin)。在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)對(dui)(dui)事(shi)故(gu)(gu)(gu)(gu)設(she)備(bei)起(qi)(qi)升(sheng)機(ji)構進行檢查(cha)發(fa)現,該(gai)起(qi)(qi)升(sheng)機(ji)構是(shi)(shi)通過(guo)(guo)(guo)不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)離合(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)吸(xi)(xi)合(he)(he)來達到轉(zhuan)換傳(chuan)動(dong)(dong)(dong)比的(de)(de)(de)(de)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)。而其(qi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)離合(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)存(cun)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)刷移(yi)位(wei)及(ji)磨損情況,在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)控(kong)箱內控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)離合(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)欠電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)繼(ji)(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)被(bei)(bei)短(duan)(duan)接(jie)(jie)且調(diao)節(jie)螺(luo)絲調(diao)至頂(ding)死位(wei)置(zhi)。在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)此(ci)(ci)。我們先對(dui)(dui)事(shi)故(gu)(gu)(gu)(gu)設(she)備(bei)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)離合(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)進行分析。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)欠電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)繼(ji)(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)FS4的(de)(de)(de)(de)檢流(liu)(liu)(liu)線圈串(chuan)(chuan)聯在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)離合(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)中(zhong)(zhong),FS4常(chang)(chang)開(kai)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)觸點(dian)(dian)串(chuan)(chuan)聯在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)起(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)回(hui)路(lu)(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)。工作時,通過(guo)(guo)(guo)轉(zhuan)換開(kai)關(guan)(guan)SA控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)離合(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)吸(xi)(xi)合(he)(he)來傳(chuan)遞不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)傳(chuan)動(dong)(dong)(dong)比,當轉(zhuan)換開(kai)關(guan)(guan)SA轉(zhuan)到I檔(dang)或(huo)II檔(dang)時.中(zhong)(zhong)間繼(ji)(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)Kl或(huo)K2吸(xi)(xi)合(he)(he),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)離合(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)線圈YC1或(huo)YC2與欠電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)繼(ji)(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)檢流(liu)(liu)(liu)線圈FS4形成回(hui)路(lu)(lu).電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)離合(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)得電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)吸(xi)(xi)合(he)(he)從而能(neng)(neng)(neng)傳(chuan)遞動(dong)(dong)(dong)力。當通過(guo)(guo)(guo)FS4中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)低于(yu)設(she)定(ding)值(zhi)(即回(hui)路(lu)(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)維持電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)離合(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)正常(chang)(chang)吸(xi)(xi)合(he)(he))時,FS4串(chuan)(chuan)聯在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)制(zhi)(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)回(hui)路(lu)(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)常(chang)(chang)開(kai)觸點(dian)(dian)斷開(kai),制(zhi)(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)抱閘。若欠電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)繼(ji)(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)常(chang)(chang)開(kai)觸點(dian)(dian)被(bei)(bei)短(duan)(duan)接(jie)(jie)或(huo)設(she)置(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)值(zhi)過(guo)(guo)(guo)小,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)離合(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)或(huo)不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)完(wan)全(quan)(quan)將電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)動(dong)(dong)(dong)力傳(chuan)遞給卷筒(tong),而此(ci)(ci)時制(zhi)(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)通電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)松閘就(jiu)會造成溜(liu)鉤(gou)(gou)事(shi)故(gu)(gu)(gu)(gu)。查(cha)閱(yue)該(gai)機(ji)型的(de)(de)(de)(de)使用說(shuo)明(ming)書發(fa)現,說(shuo)明(ming)書中(zhong)(zhong)也有明(ming)確(que)規定(ding)該(gai)欠電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)繼(ji)(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)常(chang)(chang)開(kai)點(dian)(dian)不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)因(yin)閉(bi)合(he)(he)延時而調(diao)至常(chang)(chang)閉(bi),否(fou)則會造成起(qi)(qi)升(sheng)溜(liu)鉤(gou)(gou)。因(yin)此(ci)(ci),可(ke)推斷造成本(ben)次事(shi)故(gu)(gu)(gu)(gu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)原(yuan)因(yin)是(shi)(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁(ci)(ci)(ci)離合(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)刷移(yi)位(wei)及(ji)磨損,并且欠電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(liu)繼(ji)(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)被(bei)(bei)短(duan)(duan)接(jie)(jie)且調(diao)節(jie)螺(luo)絲調(diao)至頂(ding)死位(wei)置(zhi)。其(qi)事(shi)故(gu)(gu)(gu)(gu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)根本(ben)原(yuan)因(yin)是(shi)(shi)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)設(she)備(bei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)使

  用管理上(shang)存在(zai)嚴重的(de)缺失。首先對(dui)電(dian)磁離(li)合器存在(zai)故障未(wei)能(neng)及時發現,其次(ci)維修人(ren)員在(zai)未(wei)仔細查閱使用說明的(de)情況下隨意調(diao)整及短接欠電(dian)流繼電(dian)器,也(ye)未(wei)有相關的(de)管理人(ren)員對(dui)維修情況進行(xing)跟(gen)蹤檢(jian)查.因而(er)導致了事故的(de)發生。

  塔式起(qi)重機(ji)作(zuo)為(wei)特(te)(te)種(zhong)設備,由設計到制造均經過一系列嚴格的(de)計算和試驗,國(guo)家監督管理部(bu)門(men)對起(qi)重機(ji)的(de)生產過程(cheng)進行了有(you)效(xiao)的(de)監督.起(qi)重機(ji)上的(de)各類機(ji)構、安(an)全裝(zhuang)置、電氣控(kong)制系統均有(you)其特(te)(te)定(ding)的(de)功能及重要性,均符合(he)相關的(de)安(an)全技術(shu)規范。根(gen)據(ju)《特(te)(te)種(zhong)設備安(an)全監察條(tiao)例(li)》規定(ding),

  特(te)(te)種(zhong)設(she)備(bei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)維(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)單(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)應(ying)(ying)(ying)當具(ju)有(you)(you)與(yu)特(te)(te)種(zhong)設(she)備(bei)維(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)相(xiang)適(shi)應(ying)(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)專(zhuan)業(ye)(ye)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)人(ren)(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)和(he)(he)(he)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)以及(ji)(ji)必要的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)檢(jian)(jian)測手段,并(bing)(bing)經省、自治區、直轄(xia)市特(te)(te)種(zhong)設(she)備(bei)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)監督(du)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)部門許可(ke),方可(ke)從(cong)事(shi)(shi)(shi)相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)維(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)活動(dong)。但對(dui)(dui)于一般的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)企(qi)業(ye)(ye)(起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)單(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei))。其(qi)(qi)相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)專(zhuan)業(ye)(ye)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)水(shui)平較(jiao)低,在未能(neng)完(wan)全(quan)(quan)(quan)了解(jie)起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作性能(neng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情況(kuang)(kuang)下而隨意調節、改(gai)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)置和(he)(he)(he)電氣控制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)置將(jiang)可(ke)能(neng)導致(zhi)嚴重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)事(shi)(shi)(shi)故(gu)(gu)。例如有(you)(you)部分(fen)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)單(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)隨意調大起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)力矩(ju)限制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)器和(he)(he)(he)起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)量(liang)限制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)器,更有(you)(you)一些單(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)由不同機(ji)型部件(jian)(jian)(jian)組(zu)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)而成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)。從(cong)這起(qi)(qi)(qi)塔式起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)事(shi)(shi)(shi)故(gu)(gu)中我(wo)們看出(chu)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)單(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)對(dui)(dui)大型起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)械(xie)(xie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)上(shang)存在有(you)(you)較(jiao)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)問題(ti)(ti)(ti).主要有(you)(you)以下幾(ji)點:①施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)企(qi)業(ye)(ye)未建(jian)(jian)立(li)相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)體系(xi);②未落實(shi)相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)各級的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)人(ren)(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)及(ji)(ji)責任制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度(du):③安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)人(ren)(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)專(zhuan)業(ye)(ye)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)水(shui)平的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)缺乏;④安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)手段的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)實(shi)施(shi)及(ji)(ji)其(qi)(qi)落實(shi)。施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)企(qi)業(ye)(ye)要從(cong)根本(ben)上(shang)解(jie)決(jue)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)地中塔式起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)問題(ti)(ti)(ti),就必須(xu)建(jian)(jian)立(li)起(qi)(qi)(qi)完(wan)善的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)體系(xi)。以下本(ben)人(ren)(ren)(ren)就工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)地起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)械(xie)(xie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)方面(mian)提(ti)出(chu)幾(ji)點建(jian)(jian)議(yi):①使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)單(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)應(ying)(ying)(ying)當建(jian)(jian)立(li)起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)械(xie)(xie)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)檔案(an)。安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)檔案(an)應(ying)(ying)(ying)當包(bao)括:1)起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)械(xie)(xie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)設(she)計文件(jian)(jian)(jian)(包(bao)括總(zong)圖和(he)(he)(he)電氣、液壓(ya)原理(li)(li)(li)(li)圖),產品質量(liang)合(he)格證(zheng)明,相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)、安(an)(an)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)、改(gai)造(zao)、重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)大維(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)監督(du)檢(jian)(jian)驗證(zheng)明,安(an)(an)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)和(he)(he)(he)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)維(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)護(hu)說明等(deng)文件(jian)(jian)(jian)以及(ji)(ji)安(an)(an)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)文件(jian)(jian)(jian)和(he)(he)(he)資(zi)料(liao);2)起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)械(xie)(xie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)檢(jian)(jian)驗和(he)(he)(he)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)自行(xing)檢(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)記(ji)錄;3)起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)械(xie)(xie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)日(ri)常使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)狀(zhuang)況(kuang)(kuang)記(ji)錄;4)起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)械(xie)(xie)及(ji)(ji)其(qi)(qi)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)附件(jian)(jian)(jian)、安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)保護(hu)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)置的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)日(ri)常維(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)保養記(ji)錄;5)起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)械(xie)(xie)運(yun)行(xing)故(gu)(gu)障和(he)(he)(he)事(shi)(shi)(shi)故(gu)(gu)記(ji)錄;6)起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)械(xie)(xie)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)登記(ji)證(zheng)。②使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)單(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)應(ying)(ying)(ying)建(jian)(jian)立(li)起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)械(xie)(xie)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)責任制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),配備(bei)具(ju)有(you)(you)一定(ding)(ding)專(zhuan)業(ye)(ye)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)水(shui)平的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)人(ren)(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)對(dui)(dui)起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)進(jin)行(xing)日(ri)常管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li),確(que)立(li)各級人(ren)(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)崗(gang)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)職責。③起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)(li)人(ren)(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)應(ying)(ying)(ying)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)對(dui)(dui)設(she)備(bei)進(jin)行(xing)檢(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)并(bing)(bing)做好(hao)記(ji)錄,對(dui)(dui)發現的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)問題(ti)(ti)(ti)應(ying)(ying)(ying)當按照相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)規范和(he)(he)(he)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)資(zi)料(liao)進(jin)行(xing)處理(li)(li)(li)(li),對(dui)(dui)于無法處理(li)(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)問題(ti)(ti)(ti)應(ying)(ying)(ying)當咨詢廠家或(huo)有(you)(you)資(zi)質單(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)意見。問題(ti)(ti)(ti)處理(li)(li)(li)(li)后應(ying)(ying)(ying)對(dui)(dui)設(she)備(bei)進(jin)行(xing)全(quan)(quan)(quan)面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)檢(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)并(bing)(bing)做好(hao)記(ji)錄。④使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)單(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)應(ying)(ying)(ying)定(ding)(ding)期(qi)對(dui)(dui)作業(ye)(ye)人(ren)(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)進(jin)行(xing)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)教育,定(ding)(ding)期(qi)收(shou)集作業(ye)(ye)人(ren)(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)在設(she)備(bei)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)過程中的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)狀(zhuang)況(kuang)(kuang)。⑤作業(ye)(ye)人(ren)(ren)(ren)員(yuan)(yuan)應(ying)(ying)(ying)對(dui)(dui)設(she)備(bei)進(jin)行(xing)日(ri)常的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)維(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)護(hu)保養,定(ding)(ding)期(qi)檢(jian)(jian)查(cha)(cha)起(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)置并(bing)(bing)形成(cheng)記(ji)錄。⑥對(dui)(dui)于設(she)備(bei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)維(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)或(huo)改(gai)造(zao),使(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)單(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)應(ying)(ying)(ying)聘請廠家或(huo)具(ju)有(you)(you)相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)資(zi)質的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)單(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)進(jin)行(xing)并(bing)(bing)對(dui)(dui)維(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)改(gai)造(zao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)資(zi)料(liao)記(ji)錄進(jin)行(xing)歸檔,不得私自改(gai)裝(zhuang)(zhuang)或(huo)拼裝(zhuang)(zhuang)。

  起重機械安全事故的經驗教訓告訴我們,只有對設備使用過程中的各個環節進行有效的管理才能有效控制生產過程中的危險因素、消除生產過程中產生的安全隱患,保證正常生產活動的順利進行。因此,我們應致力于不斷完善我們的安全生產管理制度,提高我們的安全生產管理水平。

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